Cystitis - noninfectiousAbacterial cystitis; Radiation cystitis; Chemical cystitis; Urethral syndrome - acute; Bladder pain syndrome; Painful bladder disease complex; Dysuria - noninfectious cystitis; Frequent urination - noninfectious cystitis; Painful urination - noninfectious; Interstitial cystitis
Cystitis is a problem in which pain, pressure, or burning in the bladder is present. Most often, this problem is caused by germs such as bacteria. Cystitis may also be present when there is no infection.
American Urological Association website. Diagnosis and treatment interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. www.auanet.org/guidelines/interstitial-cystitis/bladder-pain-syndrome-(2011-amended-2014). Accessed April 6, 2018.
Carter C. Urinary tract disorders. In: Rakel RE, Rakel DP, eds. Textbook of Family Medicine. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 40.
Hanno PM. Bladder pain syndrome (interstitial cystitis) and related disorders. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 14.
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Interstitial cystitis (Painful bladder syndrome). www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/urologic-diseases/interstitial-cystitis-painful-bladder-syndrome. Updated July 2017. Accessed March 29, 2018.