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<div class=media-desc><strong>Gastroesophageal reflux disease</strong><p>A band of muscle fibers, the lower esophageal sphincter, closes off the esophagus from the stomach. If the sphincter does not close properly, food and liquid can move backward into the esophagus and cause heartburn and other symptoms known as gastroesophageal disease (GERD). To alleviate symptoms dietary changes and medications are prescribed. For a patient who has persistent symptoms despite medical treatment, an anti-reflux operation may be an option.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>ECG</strong><p>The electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG) is used extensively in the diagnosis of heart disease, from congenital heart disease in infants to myocardial infarction and myocarditis in adults. Several different types of electrocardiogram exist.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Hardening of arteries</strong><p>Blood is the fuel that keeps your body alive and working. It’s your blood that transports the oxygen your cells need to survive. To get to your heart and out the rest of your body, blood needs a clear pathway through your arteries. But as you get older - and if you eat too many French fries and cheeseburgers - your arteries can harden and narrow, fill with plaque, leaving less room for blood to flow through. Let’s talk today about atherosclerosis. Your arteries are like the pipes your water flows through to get to your bathroom sink. When the pipes are clear, water flows easily through them. But when minerals, rust, and other debris get stuck in the pipes, it clogs them up, leaving less room for water to flow through. That’s why you get nothing more than a drip when you turn on your bathroom sink. In your arteries, clogs are caused by plaque. Plaque is a substance made up of fat and cholesterol, which are found in unhealthy foods like those French fries and also bacon. Because plaque is sticky, it collects on your artery walls and blocks the flow of blood. Sometimes a clump of plaque breaks off and floats away to a smaller blood vessel leading to your heart or brain. If it gets stuck in that vessel, you can have a heart attack or stroke. Or, the plaque can weaken an artery wall, which is called an aneurysm. If that aneurysm breaks open, you could have a very life-threatening bleeding. How can you tell if you have atherosclerosis?
Well, that’s the tricky part, because often atherosclerosis doesn’t cause any symptoms until you’ve got a blocked artery. And by then, you could already be having a heart attack or stroke. So that you don’t discover the problem too late, see your doctor for regular check-ups. Get your cholesterol screened by age 35 if you’re a man, age 45 if you’re a woman. Also have your blood pressure checked every 1 to 2 years before age 50, and then once a year after that. You may need to have your blood pressure checked even more often if you have high blood pressure, heart disease, or you’ve already had a stroke. Although you can’t reverse atherosclerosis once it starts, you can prevent it with some easy lifestyle changes. Eat a balanced diet that’s high in heart-healthy fruits, vegetables, and fish. Exercise for at least 30 to 60 minutes a day. Stop smoking, cause that’s really bad news for your arteries. If your cholesterol is high, ask your doctor whether you should take cholesterol-lowering medication. Lastly, you may also need to take aspirin or another blood-thinning drug to prevent clots from forming in your arteries.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Alzheimer disease</strong><p>Aged nervous tissue is less able to rapidly communicate with other neural tissues.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Colon cancer screening</strong><p>Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the United States. The good news is that early diagnosis through preventive screening often leads to a complete cure. Colorectal cancer starts in the large intestine, also known as the colon. Nearly all colon cancers begin as noncancerous, or benign, polyps, which slowly develop into cancer. Screening can detect these polyps and early cancers. The great thing is that we can remove polyps years before cancer even has a chance to develop! Your doctor can use several tools to screen for cancer. The first step is a stool test. This test checks your bowel movements for blood that you may not even be able to see in your stool. Polyps in the colon and small cancers can bleed tiny amounts of blood that you can't see with the naked eye. The most common method is called the fecal occult blood test. A second method is called a sigmoidoscopy exam. This test uses a flexible scope to look at the lower portion of your colon. But, because it looks only at the last one-third of the large intestine, it may miss some cancers. That's why this test is usually done along with a stool test. A colonoscopy is similar to sigmoidoscopy, but it can see the entire colon. That's why we usually do colonoscopies over sigmoidoscopies nowadays. You'll usually be mildly sedated during this test. Occasionally, your doctor may recommend, as an alternative, a double-contrast barium enema--which is a special x-ray of the large intestine, or a virtual colonoscopy, which uses a CAT scan and computer software to create a 3-D image of your large intestine. So, who should be screened for colon cancer? Well, beginning at age 50, men and women should have a screening test. People with an average risk of colon cancer should have a colonoscopy every 10 years, a double-contrast barium enema every 5 years, or a fecal occult blood test every year. Additional options are sigmoidoscopy every 5 to 10 years. People with certain risk factors for colon cancer may need screening before age 50, or more frequent testing. Such people include those with a family history of colon cancer, African-Americans, those with a history of previous colon cancer or polyps, or folks with a history of ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, which are both chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. The death rate for colon cancer has dropped in the past 15 years and this may be due to increased awareness and colon screening. In general, early diagnosis can lead to a complete cure.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Heart attack symptoms</strong><p>Symptoms of a possible heart attack include chest pain and pain that radiates down the shoulder and arm.

Some people (older adults, people with diabetes, and women) may have little or no chest pain. Or, they may experience unusual symptoms (shortness of breath, fatigue, weakness). Women are more likely than men to have symptoms of nausea, vomiting, back or jaw pain, and shortness of breath with chest pain. </p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Kidney stones</strong><p>If you ever have severe pain in your belly or one side of your back that comes and goes suddenly, you may be passing a kidney stone. Let's talk about the painful condition of kidney stones. 

A kidney stone is a mass of tiny crystals in your kidney or urinary tract. Stones are quite common, and tend to run in families. They can form in weeks or months when your urine contains too much of certain substances. 

There are several kinds of kidney stones. Calcium stones are by far the most common kind. They often form in men between the ages of 20 to 30. Calcium can combine with other substances found in your food, like oxalate, phosphate, or carbonate, to form stones.

Cystine stones can form in people who have cystinuria, a condition passed down through families in which stones are made from an amino acid called cystine. Struvite stones are found mostly in women who have urinary tract infections. These stones can grow very large and can block the kidney, ureter, or bladder. Uric acid stones are more common in men than in women. They can occur in people who have a history of gout or are going through chemotherapy.

So, how do you know if you have kidney stones?
Well, you may not have symptoms until the stone move down the ureter tubes through which urine empties into your bladder. When this happens, the stones can block the flow of urine out of your kidneys. The main symptom is severe sharp pain that starts suddenly, usually in your belly or one side of your back, and it may go away just as quickly. Other symptoms can include abnormal urine color, blood in your urine, fever, chills, nausea, and vomiting.

So, what do you do about kidney stones?
Well, your health care provider will perform a physical exam. You may need blood tests, kidney function tests, and tests that look for crystals in your urine. Several imaging tests, like a CT scan, can see stones or a blockage in your urinary tract.

Treatment will depend on the type of stone you have, and how bad your symptoms are. Small kidney stones that are less than 5 mm in diameter will usually pass on their own. You should drink at least 6 to 8 glasses of water per day to produce a large enough amount of urine to help bring the stone out.

Pain can be pretty bad when you pass a kidney stone, so your doctor may prescribe pain medicines to help as well as medications that will help the stone pass. Other medicines can decrease stone formation or help break down and remove the material that is causing you to make stones. You may need surgery if the stone is too large to pass, the stone is growing, or the stone is blocking your urine flow.

Kidney stones are painful, but you can usually pass them without causing permanent harm. However, kidney stones often come back, so you and your doctor will need to work on finding the cause of your stone. Lastly, delaying treatment can lead to serious complications, so if you think that you have kidney stones see your doctor right away.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Tobacco health risks</strong><p>In general, chronic exposure to cigarette smoking may cause increased risk of cancer, COPD, coronary artery disease, stroke, fetal illnesses, and delayed wound healing.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Understanding cholesterol results</strong><p>LDL cholesterol has gotten a bad reputation, and for very good reason. Having too much of this fatty substance in your blood can clog up your arteries, preventing blood from getting to your heart and out to where it's needed in your body. Checking your LDL levels can help your doctor spot high cholesterol before it can cause a heart attack or stroke. Let's talk today about LDL tests.

LDL stands for low-density lipoprotein. Lipoprotein is a type of protein that transports cholesterol, as well as fats called triglycerides and lipids, in your blood. When you eat too many fatty, cholesterol-rich foods, LDL cholesterol can start to collect in your artery walls. That's one collection you don't want, because if a chunk of that gunk breaks loose and gets lodged in a blood vessel, you could end up having a heart attack or stroke. 

To check your LDL cholesterol level, you'll need to have a blood test. Your doctor may tell you not to eat or drink anything for 8 to 12 hours before the test, so you can get an accurate reading. 

During the test, your doctor will draw blood from one of your veins. The needle might sting a little bit, but the feeling shouldn't last for any more than a few seconds.

So, how do you know that you have high LDL cholesterol?

Well, your LDL cholesterol level (think L for Lousy) will usually be measured along with your HDL, or good cholesterol (think H for Healthy), as well as your triglycerides and your total cholesterol level. Together, these measurements are called a lipid panel. 

You want your LDL level to be at least below 130 mg/dl, but ideally less than 100 milligrams per deciliter. If you're at high risk of heart disease, it should be even lower than that -- less than 70 milligrams per deciliter. And for folks of average risk of getting heart disease, anything over 160 is considered a high LDL level. 

If you do have LDL cholesterol, you could be at risk for heart disease. Now, some folks have high cholesterol because they have an inherited condition that causes high cholesterol. If your LDL is low, it may be because you're not eating a well-balanced diet or your intestines aren't absorbing the nutrients from the foods that you eat.

Ask your doctor how often you should have your LDL, and total cholesterol levels, checked. Depending upon your heart disease risks, you may need to be tested more often. If your LDL cholesterol is high, ask your doctor about cholesterol-lowering medications, diet, and other ways to bring it back down into a normal range.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Alcoholism</strong><p>Alcoholism is a chronic illness marked by dependence on alcohol consumption that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount may harm the fetus.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Obstructive sleep apnea</strong><p>Does your significant other complain that your snoring wakes them up during the night or keeps them from getting to sleep in the first place? Do they poke you, waking you up because sometimes they're afraid you stopped breathing? If so, you may have a condition called obstructive sleep apnea.

When you have sleep apnea, the flow of air to your lungs pauses or decreases while you sleep. This happens because your airway has become narrow or blocked.

While you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed, including the muscles that help keep your airway open, allowing air to flow freely to your lungs. Normally, your upper throat still remains open enough during sleep to let air easily pass by. Some people, however, have a narrowing throat area. When the muscles in their upper throat relax during sleep, their breathing can stop, often for more than 10 seconds. When breathing stops, it's called apnea. 

Often you're not aware that you stopped breathing during sleep. But you may wake up not-refreshed, and feel drowsy and tired during the day.

If you have this condition, your doctor will perform a physical exam, carefully checking your mouth, neck, and throat. You may take a survey that asks a series of questions about daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, and bedtime habits. If your doctor suspects you do have sleep apnea, you make take a polysomnogram, a sleep study that monitors you while you sleep.

Once your doctor diagnoses sleep apnea, treatment will focus on keeping your airway open so that you breathe better while you sleep. Lifestyle steps can help. You can avoid alcohol or sedatives, and not just at bedtime, avoid sleeping on your back, and try to lose weight if you need to. And, exercise can help, even in the absence of weight loss.

Your doctor can also prescribe a positive airway pressure using a machine, with a tight-fitting face mask, that pumps slightly pressurized air into your mouth during your breathing cycle. This keeps your windpipe open and prevents apnea episodes.

Some people need to wear dental devices that keep their jaw forward during sleep. If lifestyle changes and devices don't help, surgery may be an option.

Untreated sleep apnea, however, may lead to or worsen heart disease. Most people with sleep apnea who get treatment have less anxiety and depression than they did before. They often perform better at work or school, too. Naturally, having less daytime sleepiness can lower your risk for accidents at work, while you drive and give you more energy throughout the day.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Male pattern baldness</strong><p>Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking at his own father. </p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Erection problems</strong><p>You're a man and unfortunately, you aren't able to get an erection at all, or, you lose your erection during intercourse before you are ready. What's a man to do? Let's talk about the causes of this condition, and the various ways to make erection problems a thing of the past.

Erection problems are pretty common in adult men. Almost all men sometimes have trouble getting or keeping an erection. In many cases, the problem goes away with little or no treatment. In other cases, it can be an ongoing problem. If you have trouble getting or keeping an erection more than 25% of the time, it is a problem.

An erection involves your brain, nerves, hormones, and blood vessels. So, anything that interferes with any of these normal functions can lead to problems getting or keeping an erection. Common causes of erection problems include diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, heart or thyroid conditions, poor blood flow, depression, or nervous system disorders like multiple sclerosis or Parkinson's disease.

Medicines can also be a culprit, including those that treat high blood pressure, heart problems, sleeping pills, and antidepressants. Men who have prostate surgery may also have erection problems, but this is often only a short-term problem.

For many men, lifestyle changes can help. Cut down on smoking, alcohol, and illegal drug use. Get plenty of rest and take time to relax. Exercise and eat a healthy diet to keep good blood circulation. Talk openly to your partner about sex and your relationship; if you can't do this, counseling can help.

If the problem does not go away with lifestyle changes, or if it begins after an injury or prostate surgery, or if you have symptoms like low back pain, or abdominal pain, or a change in urination, you should call your doctor.

If erection problems seem to be caused by a medication you are taking, talk to your doctor about that. You may need to lower the dose or change to another drug. But don't change or stop taking any medications without first talking to your doctor.

Treatment may depend on the cause of your problem. Your doctor can prescribe many treatments, including medicines you take by mouth, injections into the penis, medicines inserted into the urethra, vacuum devices, surgery, and penis implants.

Ask your doctor about the possible side effects and complications of each treatment. Sildenafil (Viagra), vardenafil (Levitra), and tadalafil (Cialis) are popular medications called phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors. They work, and they work when you are sexually aroused. 

These drugs can have side effects, which can range from muscle pain and flushing to heart attack. Do not use these drugs with medications such as nitroglycerin. The combination can cause your blood pressure to drop. As you see, there are several ways to treat erectile problems. Talk with your doctor to see what may be the best one for you.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Prostate cancer</strong><p>Treatment of prostate cancer varies depending on the stage of the cancer (i.e., spread) and may include surgical removal, radiation, chemotherapy, hormonal manipulation or a combination of these treatments.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Hypertension</strong><p>If your doctor told you that you have high blood pressure, you may have wondered, what's the big deal? Well high blood pressure IS a big deal, because it can lead to a heart attack, stroke, vision loss, and kidney disease, sometimes before you even realize you have it. When you have high blood pressure, you'll want to control it before it can lead to these dangerous complications. Let's talk about high blood pressure, otherwise known as hypertension. Blood pressure measures the force at which your blood rushes against the walls of your arteries as your heart pumps it through your body. The higher the force, meaning the higher your blood pressure, the harder your heart has to work. High blood pressure damages not only your heart but also your arteries. When your doctor or nurse measures your blood pressure, you'll see two numbers. The top number is called systolic blood pressure. That's the force of blood in your arteries whenever your heart beats. The bottom number measures diastolic blood pressure, or the force of blood in between heartbeats. A measurement of 140 over 90 or higher is considered high blood pressure. When your blood pressure is 120 over 80 or higher, you have pre-hypertension. That means you're at risk for high blood pressure, but you're not quite there yet. You're more likely to have high blood pressure if you don't exercise regularly, you're obese, you eat too much salt, you have diabetes, you smoke, or you have a family history of high blood pressure. Most of the time, you won't know that you have high blood pressure. That's because high blood pressure usually doesn't cause symptoms. Unless you get your blood pressure checked, you may have no idea there's a problem until you develop heart disease or another complication. If your blood pressure is high, a few simple lifestyle changes can help bring it back down, and prevent its complications. Eat a heart-healthy diet that includes plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy, avoid fatty, salty, and sugary foods, exercise at least 30 minutes a day, limit salt to 1,500 milligrams or less a day, that's less than a teaspoon per day, and if you smoke, now is the perfect time to quit. Ask your doctor for tips on how to kick the habit. If these measures don't work, your doctor may prescribe one or more medicines to control your blood pressure. Because high blood pressure can sneak in without warning, stop it before it starts. Stay healthy, and your blood pressure checked at least once a year. If you already have high blood pressure, follow your doctor's advice to get it under control.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Blood pressure check</strong><p>To measure blood pressure, your doctor uses an instrument call a sphygmomanometer, which is more often referred to as a blood pressure cuff. The cuff is wrapped around your upper arm and inflated to stop the flow of blood in your artery. As the cuff is slowly deflated, your doctor uses a stethoscope to listen to the blood pumping through the artery. These pumping sounds register on a gauge attached to the cuff. The first pumping sound your doctor hears is recorded as the systolic pressure, and the last sound is the diastolic pressure.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Type II diabetes</strong><p>Over the past several years, our collective diets have grown unhealthier, and our waistlines have expanded as a result. Doing so, we're putting ourselves at risk for a number of diseases, including type 2 diabetes. Diabetes is serious stuff, if it's not treated, it can lead to some pretty dangerous complications, including nerve and kidney damage. The good news is you can often avoid type 2 diabetes and its complications. You need sugar, or glucose, to keep your body running. Normally when you eat, your pancreas releases a hormone called insulin, which moves the sugar from food out of your blood and into your cells, where it can either be used for energy, or stored. But if you have type 2 diabetes, this system doesn't work as well as it should, in part because your cells have a harder time responding to insulin. As a result, sugar builds up in your blood. Why is that a problem? Well, that excess sugar can damage organs like your eyes and kidneys, and it can lead to complications like nerve damage and heart disease. Diabetes complications could leave you blind, lead to amputation of your toes or feet, and maybe even kill you. You can help prevent diabetes complications by keeping good control over your blood sugar, but first you need to know that you have type 2 diabetes. Sometimes it can be hard to tell because you may not have any symptoms at first. Being very thirsty, tired, or having to go to the bathroom a lot may be pretty good clues that you might have developed diabetes. Blurry vision might also be a clue. Your doctor can confirm it with a blood test. Once you know that you have diabetes, it's your job to keep it under control. You'll need to check your blood sugar at home and talk to your doctor about how to lower it with diet, exercise, and possibly medicine. To avoid serious complications, you'll need to see not just one doctor, but a team of health care professionals. That includes a podiatrist to check your feet, an ophthalmologist to check your eyes, and a dentist for cleanings and exams. Because type 2 diabetes increases your risk for heart disease, you'll also need to see your primary care doctor regularly to have your blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglycerides checked, and to make sure your kidneys are working as well as they should. Like any other disease, it's better to avoid getting type 2 diabetes then to have to treat it. If you're at risk because you're overweight or over age 45, ask your doctor for a blood sugar test at your next check-up. If you have already developed diabetes, you can help avoid complications by staying on top of your health, checking your blood sugars, eating a healthy diet, exercising, and seeing all of your specialists on schedule. Make your doctor a partner in your care. Call right away if you have any problems, like numbness or tingling in your legs or feet, blurry vision, extreme thirst, weakness, or fatigue.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Cholesterol producers</strong><p>Cholesterol is a waxy,  fat-like material that is found in all parts of the body. It comes from two sources: our liver produces it, and we consume it in meat and dairy products.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Enlarged prostate</strong><p>Not every man will have to deal with age-related issues like balding or weight gain. Whether you have these problems really depends on your health, and luck. But one problem just about every man will have to face, if he lives long enough, is an enlarged prostate. Let's talk about an enlarged prostate, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH. The prostate gland is part of your reproductive system, and its job is to add fluid to the sperm before ejaculation. The prostate is pretty small when you're young, but as you get older it grows and grows. Keep in mind, this growth isn't cancerous. But by design,  the prostate is wrapped around the urethra, the tube that carries urine from your bladder out of your body. So as the prostate grows, it can begin to squeeze or pinch the urethra which often can make it harder for men with an enlarged prostate to urinate. If you have an enlarged prostate, the first notice that you're having trouble urinating. Instead of having a strong even flow, the urine only dribbles out like a leaky faucet; drip, drip, dribble, drip. Because you're not emptying your bladder fully each time, you keep feeling the urge to use the bathroom, even in the middle of the night. To check your prostate, your doctor or urologist will check your prostate gland by inserting a lubricated, gloved finger and feeling for any growth. Other tests may check your urine flow, and how much urine is left in your bladder after you go, as well as look for signs of an infection or prostate cancer. How is an enlarged prostate treated? Treatment often depends on how you feel. If you're not having any symptoms, your doctor may suggest just watching it, that's called watchful waiting. If you've got bothersome symptoms, medications can reduce the size of the prostate gland, and relax your bladder and prostate so you don't constantly feel the urge to go. For more serious symptoms, surgery can remove the extra prostate tissue. To help relieve the symptoms of an enlarged prostate, watch how much fluid you drink, especially before bedtime, or before going out. Minimize alcohol and caffeine, as well as over-the-counter decongestants and antihistamines. They can make your symptoms worse. Double voiding can help. After you've emptied your bladder, wait a moment and try to go again without straining or pushing. Some people take herbs like saw palmetto for an enlarged prostate. Although there's some evidence that these herbs can relieve BPH symptoms, many studies haven't found a benefit. Talk to your doctor before taking any herbal remedy, because they can cause side effects. Prostate enlargement isn't usually serious, but it can have a serious impact on your way of life, especially when you're always going to the bathroom. Remember that BPH is treatable. Work with your doctor to find the treatment that works best for you. If you've been caring for your symptoms for 2 months and not finding any relief, or you're having more serious symptoms like you're not urinating at all, or you have a fever or pain in your back or abdomen, call your doctor as soon as possible.</p></div><div class=media-desc><strong>Depression and men</strong><p>Depression is less reported in the male population, but this may be caused by male tendency to mask emotional disorders with behavior such as alcohol abuse.</p></div>
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